. .
Institutt for fysikk, Kristian Fossheim
. .
  Kristian Fossheim
Professor dr. philos.
Institutt for fysikk,
Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet
  Adresse: Institutt for fysikk
7491 Trondheim
Materialfysikk, faststoff-fysikk
Kooperative fenomen, Superleiar-fysikk, Superleiar-teknikk, Magnetisme, Ultralydmetodar, Lågtemperaturteknikk, Faststoff-termodynamikk, Materialframstilling
  Telefon: 735 91854
  Telefaks: 735 97710
  Epost: Kristian.Fossheim

Tilsetting og utanlandsopphald:
  Universitetet i Trondheim, og NTNU sidan 1970. Professor sidan 1980.
National High Magnetic Field Lab, Florida gjesteprofessor 1994-95 og 2000-2001.
Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba og International Superconductivity Technology Center (ISTEC), Japan, invitert gjesteforskar 1990.
IBM Thomas J Watson Research Lab, Yorktown Heights, NY, gjesteforskar 1975-76.
IBM Zurich Reserach Lab gjesteforskar 1973 og 1975.
Forskingsstipendiat, Norges Almennvitskapelege Forskingsråd 1967-1970.
University of Maryland, NATO science fellowship 1965-66. Research associate 1966-67.
Universitetet i Oslo 1965-70.
Vitskapeleg rådgjevar, Nycomed AS 1988-2000.
Grunnla, saman med to kollegaer, SINTEF Anvendt fysikk, 1988.
Journalist i Jærbladet, Bryne.
Kristian Fossheim er innvald medlem i:
Det Kongelige Norske Videnskapers Selskab
Det Norske Videnskaps Akademi
Norges Tekniske Vitenskapsakademi
  • Superleiar: Fysiske eigenskapar (Utgitt bok på Wiley & Sons)
  • Superleiar: Tekniske anvendelsar (Utgitt bok på World Scientific, Singapore)
  • Superleiarteknikk (SQUID) for måling av svake magnetfelt, f. eks. biomagnetisme
  • Superleiar: Magnetiske eigenskapar
  • Ferroelektriske material
  • Metallfysikk: Elektriske transporteigenskapar
  • Kooperative fenomen, faseovergangar
  • Ultralydmetodar, generering og deteksjon av elastiske (ultralyd-) bølgjer i faste material. Frekvensområdet 10-1000 MHz
  • Akustisk mikroskop, bygging og bruk av.
  • Lågtemperatur-teknikk frå 1 grad kelvin (1 K) til romtemperatur ved bruk av flytande helium og nitrogen
  • Mikrobølgjeteknikk
  • Materialframstilling, krystall og keram
  • Varmekapasitetsmåling

Ca 150 publikasjonar i internasjonale tidsskrift, innen fagområder nemnde ovanfor.
Sjå  Selected publications

I 1991: K. Fossheim: Superconducting Technology. 10 case studies. World Scietific, Singapore.

I 2004, utgjeve på Wiley & Sons i England, lærebok på PhD-nivå:
Kristian Fossheim and Asle Sudbø:  Superconductivity. Physics and Applications, 442 sider.

Bok under utarbeiding: Physics in the 20th century: Conversations with 10 Nobel laureates, for Springer Verlag.
Research Highlights:

The following is a strongly abbreviated review of particularly significant published research in the career of professor Kristian Fossheim:

  1964, University of Oslo:
  Performed the first measurements ever of the shape and size of the Fermi surface of aluminium, simultaneously with, and independently of, a US group, Kamm and Bohm. Point by point measurements of the shape of the Fermi surface in the second Brilloun zone, the dominant one in aluminium. Method: Magnetoacoustic measurements via electon-phonon interaction at 4.2 K. With T. Olsen.Phys. Stat. Sol. 6, 867 (1964)
  1967-1970, University of Maryland and University of Oslo:
  Submillikelvin resolved, and temperature- controlled, measurements of shear wave attenuation of ultrasound in normal to superconducting tyransition in indium. Simultaneously KF developed theory for the phenomena observed: Resulted in a confirmation of the role of the coherence factors which appear in the BCS theory, an independent test, which had so far only been possible by NMR relaxation measurements. These measurements were far superior to the NMR-measurements in terms of temperature resolution. The whole measurement series also confirmed the role of the Meissner effect as a dynamic effect in the 100 MHz range. Phys. Rev. Letters 19, 81 (1967). Later, more theory on the same, and extensive measurements on the superconducting transition in aluminium, also confirming the KF theory for the effect, and the role of BCS coherence factors. Further theoretical analysis and predictions of similar effects in different metals.
  1969, University of Oslo:
  Provided the first evidence for critical behaviour in a structural phase transition: Critical attenuation of sound in the model ABX3 perovskite SrTiO3.
Phys. Rev. Letters 23 , 589 (1969), with B. Berre and with K. A. Müller. Our collaboartion was followed up by Müller who also showed that the order parameter had nonclassical exponent. The latter was later, 1987, to be awarded the Nobel prize in physics for the discovery of superconductivity in perovskite cuprate compounds, structurally closely related to SrTiO3.
  1972 at Norwegian Institute of Technology (NTH), Trondheim:
  Publication of extensive measurements of the critical behaviour of sound attenuation and velocity in SrTiO3. Also demonstrated the possibility of total suppression of domain structure in the low temperature phase under biaxial pressure. With Berre. Phys. Rev. B5 , 3292 (1972)
  1972 at NTH/University of Oslo:
  Dr. philos. Thesis on phase transitions in superconductors and structural systems.
  1975, as a guest scientist at IBM Research Center Zurich:
  Developed a new method for acoustic flexure resonance studies of polarization distribution in KH2PO4, with Høchli. J. Phys. C 8, 1928 (1975)
  1975-76, as an guest scientist at IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center,Yorktown Height,
  New York:
Carrried out a major research effort on dynamical effects and memory effects created by pulsed acoustic signals, generating phonon echoes, alternatively called phase conjugated ultrasound, in piezoelectric materials in powder form. Resulted in a 35 page paper in Physical Review and paper in PRL: K. Fossheim, K. Kajimura, R. L. Melcher, N. Shiren and T. Kaziyaka. Phys.Rev. Letters 37, 1151 (1976). Phys.Rev. B 17, 964 (1978).
  1977-78 at NTH:
  Developed a broadband, tunable helical resonant cavity for microwave applications in the 100-1000 MHz range. With Rune Holt. J. Phys. E.: Sci. Instrum. 11, 892 (1978)
  1979-80 at NTH:
  Developed a new technique for phase conjugated ultrasound, similar to a time reversal effect, to allow precise measurements of acoustic signals when the wavefront of these were distorted on passing through the material under study. A dramatic improvement of measurements was demonstrated. With Rune Holt. Phys. Phys.Rev. Letters 45, 730 (1980).
  1979-1980 at NTH:
  The first determination of dynamic scaling law for ultrasonic critical attenuation at a structural phase transition, in KMnF3. Phys.Rev. Letters 45, 730 (1980)
  1978-1980 at NTH:
  Developed a new method for acoustic generation of ultrasound, both surface Rayleigh waves and volume waves, by use of effective piezoelecticity in surface barriers created in a depletion region under metals films deposited on oxide crystals, including perovskites SrTiO3. Method allowed determination of depth of depletion layer in the metal-semiconductors contact and applicable for acoustic generation in cubic materials where piezoelecticity is nonexsistant. Studied photoresponse. With Leif Bjerkan. A M Raaen and R Holt. Publications in Appl. Phys. Letters, Solid State Communications
  1979-81 at NTH:
  Developed the first computer monitored specific heat measurement system. Could be operated over a wide temperature range with unprecedented resolution in heat capacity variations. Received widespread attention, and was copied in many groups abroad. With S. Stokka. J. Phys. E.: Sci. Instrum. 15 , 123 (1982).
  1979-1981 at NTH:
  Revealed the first case of tricritical behaviour in a structural phase diagram: The perovskite KMnF3. With Sigmund Stokka and V. Samulionis. Phys. Rev. Letters 47, 1740 (1981).
  1979-1981 at NTH:
  Determined the phase boundary of the cubic to tetragonal phase transition in SrTiO3 under biaxial pressure, by specific heat measurements on small crystals. This led to the first determination of a new critical exponent in structural phase transitions, the crossover exponent. Phys. Rev. B 25, 4896 (1982). This work established a definite parallel between structural and magnetic systems with similar symmetry. The experiment was later repeated by the Nobel laureate K Alex Müller at IBM Zurich in LaAlO3 with precisely similar results.
  1982 at NTH:
  A major review article, 77 pages, was written for the series Physical Acoustics, Mason and Thurston, eds. Volume XVI, Academic Press : “Two-pulse Phonon Echoes in Solids” by K. Fossheim and R. Holt.
  1984 at NTH:
  Review of multicritical phenomena at structural phase transitions. Geilo: NATO Advanced Study Institute, with J. O. Fossum. Printed in R. Pynn and A. Skjeltorp eds.:Multicritical Phenomena. Plenum Press , New York 1984, p 113-129.
  1982-1988 at NTH:
  Development and use of the first and only acoustic microscope in Norway, all home built. Two papers from this work, on imaging of grain structure in Al and in Cu metals, were later included in Selected Papers on Scanning Acoustic Microscopy, B. T. Khuri-Yakub and C. F. Quate eds. In SPIE Milestone Series, B. J. Thompson ed. 1992. The development of the acoustic microscope was assisted by S. Sathish, T. Bye. G. Heggum, B. Brattheim, and others.
  1987 at NTH:
  Participation in the international research efforts in high-TC superconductivity was started in collaboration with the two IBM scientists J. G. Bednorz and K. Alex Müller, resulting in the first publication in Solid State Communications 63, 331 (1987). Authors: K. Fossheim, T. Lægreid, E. Sandvold and F. Vassenden, J. G. Bednorz and K.A. Müller. Bednorz and Müller were awarded the Nobel prize later, the same year. This first work was reported also at the first European meeting on high-TC research in Pisa, Italy in April 1987.
  1987 at NTH:
  Article in Nature on the possible relationship between specific heat anomalies at 220 K and at 90 K in YBCO. With T. Lægreid, E. Sandvold, and S. Julsrud. Nature 330, 637 (1987)
  1988 at NTH,
  in collaboration with the Birmingham superconductivity group which supplied the crysals:
Critical behaviour of specific heat at the superconducting transition in YBCO. It was shown here for the first time that high-TC superconductivity is radically different from all previous experience in superconductivity thermodynamics: It clearly showed that the mean field picture as developed by BCS-theory does not apply to high-TC compounds. This view was later, from 1996, strongly supported by theoretical work by the Sudbø-group at our institute. Also, exponents were determined for the temperature dependent resistivity near the critical point. Publications: K. Fossheim, O.M. Nes, T. Lægreid, C.N.W. Darlington, D. A. O’Connor, and C.E. Gough, International Journal of Modern Physics B, Vol 1, No 5 1171-1183 (1988). T. Lægreid, P. Tuset, O.-M. Nes, M. Slaski and K. Fossheim, Physica C 162-164, 490 (1989)
  Organized Nordic Symposium on Superconductivity, and Winter School at Røros in January 1991. Led to publication of the book: K. Fossheim, Superconducting Technology. 10 Case Studies. World Scientific, Singapore.
  1988-1993 at NTH:
  Development of techniques for vibrating reed measurement of elastic properties of small crystals, necessitated by the fact that only very small crystals were available in high-TC superconductor research (O.-M. Nes). In collaboration with the ISTEC group, Tokyo: A new phase transition was discovered near 150 K in the superconductor Y1Ba2Cu4O8 with 2.5% substitution of Ca for Ba. With Wu Ting, O.-M. Nes, M. Karkut, T. Suzuki, Y. Yaegashi, H. Yamauchi, and S. Tanaka. Phys.Rev. B 48, 607 (1993) . A series of papers were published in collaboration with the ISTEC group, headed by S. Tanaka, and with the Kitazawa group at Tokyo University after my stay at ISTEC and ETL, Tsukuba in the summer of 1990.
  1992 at NTH:
  Collaboration with K. A. Müller: Elastic anomalies in the quantum paraelectric regime of SrTiO3. A possible new quantum state of structural systems is discussed. With Nes and Suzuki. Europhys. Lett. 19, 397 (1992).
  1989-2005 at NTH/NTNU,
  in collaboration with several foreign groups, Birmingham, ISTEC Tokyo and Argonne National Lab:
AC susceptibility measurements with studies of flux dynamics in superconductors in a magnetic field, a central theme in the Fossheim superconductivity group. Irreversibility lines were studied in a number of superconductors. Work presented in invited lectures at several international conferences, including two Nobel Symposia in Sweden. Example: M.G. Karkut, M. Slaski, M. Heill, L.T. , and K. Fossheim: The AC magnetic response of YBCO with BaCuO5 inclusions and of single crystal YBCO, Physica C 215, 19-33 (1993).
  1994-95 guest professor
  at National High Magnetic Field Lab (NHMFL), Florida State University:
Collaboration with T. W. Ebbesen at NEC Research Institute, Princeton on the use of carbon nanotubes as defect inclusions embedded in high-TC superconductors for better pinning. K. Fossheim, E.D. Tuset, T. W. Ebbesen, T. W. Treacy, and M.M.J. Schwartz: Physica C 248, 195 (1995). Patented in the US.
  1994-1995, at NHMFL:
  With S. Gjølmesli, K. Sun, and J. Schwartz: Observation of logarithmic current density dependence of the activation barrier in superconducting HgBaCaCuO6. Phys. Rev. 52, 10447 (1995)
  1998-2002 at NTNU
  in collaboration with the Hiroshima group (T. Suzuki and N. Kikugawa):
Development of a new resonant ultrasonic CW system for measurements of elastic constants of small crystals (J. Nyhus thesis, and U. Thisted). Observations of critical slowing softening of elastic constants of LSCO near the superconducting phase transition in a magnetic field, with simultaneous observation of similarty with specific heat. Physica C 369 , 273 (2002).
  2000-2003 at NTNU:
  Further collaboration with the Hiroshima group: Observation of unusual diamagnetic response in superconductor above TC in underdoped LaSrCuO. Physical interpretation: Caused by superconducting fluctuation effects above TC. With U. Thisted. Phys. Rev. B 67, 184510 (2003).
  2000-2004 at NHMFL and at NTNU:
  During the sabbatical stay by K. Fossheim as a guest professor at NHMFL, started writing which led to publication of a new international textbook at the PhD-level: Kristian Fossheim and Asle Sudbø: Superconductivity. Physics and Applications. Wiley UK 2004. 442 pages. First printing was sold out after 6 months. Second printing, March 2005.
Utdanna doktorandar:
  Leif Bjerkan (1977):
  Surface wave investigations of perovskites     Jfr. BIBSYS
  Rune Holt (1980):
  Development and application of phonon echo technique in phase transtition studies    
  Sigmund Stokka (1981):
  Specific heat at structural phase transitions     Jfr. BIBSYS
  Jon Otto Fossum (1983):
  Critical behaviour of acoustic modes in perovskites     Jfr. BIBSYS
  Erik Sandvold (1987):
  Phase transitions in ferroelectric systems     Jfr. BIBSYS
  Trygve Lægreid (1988):
  Experimental studies of high temperature superconductivity and structural phase transitions     Jfr. BIBSYS
  Olav-Magnar Nes (1992):
  Construction and application of vibrating reed apparatus to perovskites: High-TC superconductors and SrTiO3     Jfr. BIBSYS
  Wu Ting (1992):
  Structural instability and phase transitions in high-TC cuprate superconductors     Jfr. BIBSYS
  Lise T. Sagdahl (1994):
  Experimental studies of flux dynamics in high temperature superconductors     Jfr. BIBSYS
  Pål Tuset (1994):
  Magnetoresistance in superconductors     Jfr. BIBSYS
  Lars Ketil Heill (1995):
  Magnetic properties of high temperature superconductors     Jfr. BIBSYS
  Svein Gjølmesli (1995):
  Critical state and vortex dynamics in high temperature superconductors     Jfr. BIBSYS
  Ellen D. Tuset (1997):
  Magnetic relaxation and flux pinning in high-temperature superconductors     Jfr. BIBSYS
  Jørgen Nyhus (2001):
  Resonant ultrasonic system design, and measurements of critical behaviour and flux-line elasticity in high temperature superconductors     Jfr. BIBSYS
  Ulrik Thisted (2004):
  Magnetic and thermodynamic properties of layered and thin film superconductors     Jfr. BIBSYS

Etablerte kunnskapsfirmaet Simplicatus AS i 2000, saman med ein fysikkstudent.

To større EU pedagogiske prosjekt, SUPERCOMET og SUPERCOMET II, med ei totalramme på 6 mill NOK forankra i dette firmaet. Desse prosjekta er ei videreføring av Superlab, sjå nedanfor.

Formidling og debatt:
Nasjonale og internasjonale verv:
Tidlegare og nåverande verv i Norge:
  • Preses i Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskap (DKNVS).
  • Visepresident i Norsk Fysisk Selskap
  • Leiar av Forskerakademiet (preses) ved Universitetet i Trondheim (1991-1993)
  • Varaordførar, Rådet for Naturvitskapleg forsking, NAVF
  • Formann i Fysikk-komiteen, Materialprogrammet og CERN-programmet ved NAVF
  • Styrar, Institutt for Teknisk Fysikk, Universitetet i Trondheim
  • Styrar, Fysikkseksjonen ved Universitetet i Trondheim
  • Medlem av Professorrådet, NTH
  • Medlem av SINTEFs Råd
  • Første leiar for NTHs Japan-utval
  • Leiar for Universitetsavisas Redaksjonsråd
  • Medlem av Rådet for Vestlandsforsking
  • Medlem av styret for Senter for Fornybar Energi ved NTNU
  • Medlem av Kontaktutvalget ved NTNU, for samarbeidet med Senter for Grunnforskning (Center for Advanced Studies, CAS) i Oslo
  • Styremedlem i Trondheim Kommunale Musikk- og Kulturskole
  • Medstiftar av Byåsen Strykeorkester
Tidlegare og nåverande internasjonale verv:
Member, International Review Committee
  Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL), Tsukuba
Member, Executive Board
  Superconductor Science and Technology, IOP
Member, International Advisory Committee
  World conference of superconductivity: M2S-HTSC, Kanazawa 1991, Beijing 1997, Houston 2000, Rio de Janeiro 2003, Dresden 2006.
Member every year since 1990, International Advisory Committee
  International Symposium on Superconductivity, Japan
Member, International Advisory Committee
  European Conference on Applications of Superconductivity (EUCAS)
Member, Steering Committee
  ESF-program on Vortex matter.

Spesielle tiltak og oppdrag:

    Juryformann i den internasjonale juryen for utdeling av den store belgiske grunnforskingsprisen ” Dr. A. De Leeuw-Damry-Bourlart. -Exact Sciences” på 100 000 ECU som blir delt ut berre kvart 5. år av Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek, Flandern. Brussel 15. mars 2005.

    Europeisk medlem av International Reviewing Committe for Japans nasjonale forskingslaboratorium, Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba, 1996.

    Arrangerte i 1991 det første nordiske symposiet i superleiarforskning på Røros, med forelesarar frå Europa, Japan og USA. Dette vart starten på ein nordisk serie av møter i fagfeltet.

    Arrangerte i 1991 nasjonalt møte i anvendt superleiarforsking på Røros med forelesarar frå Europa og USA.

    La grunnlaget gjennom Røros-møta for oppretting av eit nordisk konsortium innan superleiarforsking, med deltaking frå dei nasjoanle forskingsråda, frå Nordisk Industrifond og nordiske indistribedrifter, med ei total ramme på 47 millionar kroner. Sintef fekk gjennom dette oppdrag på 7 millionar. Norsk Hydro deltok frå norsk industri.

    Tok i 1985 gjennom Forskingsrådet (Det dåverande Rådet for Naturvitskapleg Forsking under Norges Allmennvitskaplege Forskingsråd)initiativet til den første evaluering av norsk forsking innan material-og fastsstoffysikk.

    Tok i 1986 gjennom Forskingsrådet (Det dåverande Rådet for Naturvitskapleg Forsking under Norges Allmennvitskaplege Forskingsråd) initiativet til, og fekk oppretta, det første norske grunnforskingsprogrammet innan material-og faststoff-fysikk.

    Leia det nyoppretta Materialforskingsprogrammet i Forskingsrådet i åra 1986,1987,1988, 1989.

    Arrangerte den første nasjonale Faststoff-konferansen i Norge, saman med Birger Stølan på Oppdal i mars 1985.

    Tok gjennom Forskingsrådet RNF/NAVF i 1985 initiativ til å skaffe NTH den første superdatamaskin ved eit norsk universitet.

    Initiativtakar til nasjonal feiring av 150-års jubileet for matematikaren Sophus Lies fødsel på Nordfjordeid,1992. Det var avduka av statue av Sophus Lie. Førde til oppretting av Sophus Lie Conference Center og Sophus Lie Summer School i matematikk på Nordfjordeid.

    Var ein av initiativtakarane til Sogespelet om Audun Hugleikson i Jølster gjennom ein kronikk i dagsavisa Firda. Spelet hadde premiere i 2002 med tekst av Edvard Hoem og musikk av Henning Sommerro. Sjå artiklar og foredrag om dette under foredrag for P2-Akademiet og under formidling.

    Medlem av Statsminister Gro Harlems Brundtlands delegasjon ved det første norske statsministerbesøk i Japan, januar 1992, i eigenskap av leiar for NTHs Japan-utvalg og som leiar for Forskerakademiet ved Universitetet i Trondheim. Universitetet i Trondheim var det einaste norske universitetet som hadde organisert samarbeid med Japansk forsking.

    Medlem av den vitskaplege delegasjonen ved det første norske kongebesøk i Japan, mars 2001.

    Gav Closing remarks (Conference Summary)ved avslutting av International Summer School on Vortex Matter, Kreta september 2003.

    Gav Closing remarks (Conference Summary) ved avslutting av den internasjonale Vortex Matter konferansen i Praha, april 2002, under European Science Foundation.

    Var i 1982 leiar for utvalet som gjekk gjennom heile NTH sin fagportefølgje for å samordne undervisninga innan ulike fagområder.

Arrangør av nasjonale og internasjonale konferansar:
  • Nasjonal Faststoff-konferanse, saman med Birger Stølan, Oppdal 1986
  • Nordic Superconductivity Symposium, Røros 1991
  • Applied Superconductivity Winter School, Røros 1991
  • Applications of Superconductivity, NATO ASI, med H. Weinstock, Loen 1997
  • Critical Properties of Vortex Matter, Saman med A. Sudbø, Loen 2001
  • Internasjonal konferanse i Trondheim ved Lars Onsagers 100. fødselsår, 2003. Saman med Signe Kjeldstrup, Dick Bedeaux, Bjørn Hafskjold og Asle Sudbø.  Se  http://www.chem.ntnu.no/onsager100/
Deltaking i internasjonale nettverk:
EU-HCM Network Participated in the HCM-network "Flux pinning in High-Tc Superconductors" 1993-96.
EU-SCENET Participated in Esprit Network of Excellence 1996-1999.
EU-SCENET-POWER Continued participation in a Brite-Euram context, for a 3-year period.
ESF-NETWORK Participation in European Science Foundation network: "Vortex matter under extreme scales and conditions".
  Allforskprisen, formidlingspris, Trondheim kommune 2003
  Sogn og Fjordane Fylkes Målpris 1989
  EB Norsk Kabels Jubeliumsgave 1988
  Fridtjof  Nansens belønning for yngre forskere 1977

Sist oppdatert:06.03.2005